For bibliographical purposes the following works should be consulted: Stoddard, F. H., References for Students of Miracle-Plays and Mysteries, University of California Library Bulletin 1887, Berkeley (reviewed in Anglia, vol. XI, pp. 325 ff.); Greg, List of Plays; Chambers, E. K., vol. I, pp. xiiixlii, for a list of works made use of in the book; vol. II, Appendix W, for a list of dramatic performances in England, topographically arranged; Appendix X for a catalogue of English dramatic texts.
For the general history of the medieval religious drama and its origins the reader is referred to Creizenach, Chambers and Klein; as well as to Mone, F. J., Schauspiele des Mittelalters, Karlsruhe, 1846; Sepet, M., Le Drame chrétien au Moyen Âge, Paris, 1878; Hase, K., Das geistliche Schauspiel des Mittelalters (Leipzig, 1858); E. tr. by Jackson, A. W., 1880; and to other works mentioned in the bibliographies contained in Chambers, in Schelling, and in Bates, K. L., The English Religious Drama, 1893. See also Smith, G. Gregory, The Transition Period (Periods of European Literature), 1903.
The liturgical drama and its evolution are discussed, more especially, by Gayley, u.i.; Sepet, M., Origines catholiques du Théâtre Moderne, Paris, 1901; Du Méril, Origines Latines du Théâtre Moderne, vol. I, Paris, 1849; and Ebert, A., Entwicklungsgeschichte der französ. Tragödie, Gotha, 1856. For the texts of the Quem quaeritis see Wright, T., Early Mysteries and other Latin Poems, 1838. Examples of the liturgical drama are included in ManlysSpecimens, vol. I. Among other collections Coussemaker, E. de, Drames liturgiques du Moyen Âge, 1860, contains the music with the text. The liturgical plays of Hilarius have been edited by Champollion-Figeac, J. J., Hilarii Versus et Ludi, Paris, 1838; for accounts of these see Morley, H., vol. I, part 2, pp. 542 ff., and Ward, vol. I, pp. 37 ff. For an account of Anglo-Norman religious drama see Petit de Julleville, u.i.; as to the allegorical productions of Guillaume Herman and (?) Étienne Langton see La Rue, G. de, Essais historiques sur les Bardes et les Trouvères, vol. II, pp. 2702 and vol. III, pp. 511, Caen, 1834; Archaeologia, vol. XIII, pp. 2314, 1880; Klein, vol. IV, pp. 1078.
The transition from the liturgical to the secular dramafrom the Church to the guildis described by Gayley, chap. VI. Cf. Leach, A. F., Some English Plays and Players, in Furnivall Miscellany, 1901, pp. 205234, for the view that the miracle-plays did not originate in the monasteries, but were throughout (in England at all events), in the hands of the civic authorities and the craft guilds, assisted by the secular clergy.
The following select bibliography includes only works relating to the English branch of the early English Religious Drama (including the moralities).
I. GENERAL HISTORY AND CRITICISM
Brandls Quellen. Introduction.
Chambers. (See in vol. II, Appendix C, the portion of the Concordia Regularis referred to in the text, and the Sarum liturgical drama. The former will also be found in Lange, K., Die lateinischen Osterfeiern, Munich, 1887.)
Collier. Vols. I and II.
Courthope. Vol. I, chaps. IX and X: The Progress of Allegory, and The Rise of the Drama in England.
Creizenach. Vols. IIII.
Gayley, C. M. Plays of our Forefathers, and some of the traditions upon which they were founded. New York, 1909. [A singularly illuminating survey.]
Herfords Literary Relations. [As to the Dialogue.]
Hirzel, R. Der Dialog. Ein literarhistorischer Versuch. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1895.
Irving, D. Dissertations on the Early Scottish Drama. In Lives of the Scottish Poets. Vol. I, pp. 197222. 1804.
History of Scottish Poetry. Ed. Carlyle, J. A. Chaps. XVI and XVII. 1861. JusserandsTh. en A.
Klein. Vols. XII and XIII.
Morley H. Vol. II, part I.
Pollard, A. W. English Miracle Plays, Moralities and Interludes. With Introduction and Notes. Oxford, 1890. 5th ed. 1909. [Extremely useful.]
Saintsbury, G. History of English Prosody. Vol. I, pp. 203 ff. 1906.
Snell, F. J. The Age of Transition, 14001580. With an Introduction by Hales, J. W. (Handbooks of English Literature.) Vol. I. 1905.
Symmes, H. S. Les Débuts de la Critique Dramatique en Angleterre. Paris, 1903. (As to the attitude of the clergy towards the drama.)
Taylor, G. C. The English Planctus Mariae. Modern Philology, vol. IV, pp. 605637, Jan., 1907.
Thien, H. Über die englischen Marienklagen. (Diss.) Kiel, 1906.
Ward. Vol. I, pp. 29157.
Warton. Vol. III, section 33.
Wright, T. Early Mysteries and other Latin Poems of the XIIth and XIIIth centuries. 1838.
Wright, T. and Halliwell [-Phillipps], J. O. Reliquiae Antiquae. 2 vols. 18413. Contains the text of the Interludium de Clerico et Puella, vol. I, p. 145; also the Wyclifite Tretise of Miraclis Pleying. The former is ed. by Henser in Anglia, vol. XXX, p. 306, 1907.
II. MYSTERIES AND MIRACLE-PLAYS
A. General History and Criticism
Bateson, Mary. Medieval England. 1905.
Davidson, C. Studies in the English Mystery Plays. 1892. [Contains a survey of the prosody of the plays.]
Ebert, A. Die Englischen Mysterien. Jahrb. für roman. und engl. Literatur. Vol. I. Berlin, 1859.
Emerson, O. F. Legends of Cain. Publ. of Mod. Lang. Assoc. New Series, vol. XIV, pp. 831929, Dec., 1906.
Green, Alice Stopford. Town life in the fifteenth century. Vol. I, pp. 175 ff. 1894. [For the relations of the religious plays to the life of the English towns.]
Hone, W. Ancient Mysteries described, especially the English Miracle Plays
extant among the unpublished MSS. in the British Museum. 1823.
Napier, A. S. The History of the Holy Rood Tree. E.E.T.S. 1894. [For the influence of Cursor Mundi and other sources.]
Pearson, C. H. History of England during the Early Middle Ages. Vol. I, pp. 636 ff. 1867.
Petit de Julleville. Vol. I. Les Mystères.
Smith, J. T. English Gilds. The original ordinances of more than one hundred English Gilds. With introduction and glossary by Smith, Lucy Toulmin. E.E.T.S. Publ. XL. 1870.
Wright, J. Essays on Archaeological subjects. Vol. II. 1861.
Wülcker, R. P. Das Evangelium Nicodemsin der abendländ. Literatur. Paderborn, 1872.
B. Collective Mysteries
Gayley, C. M. Sources of the Cycles. (Appendix to Plays of our Forefathers. See Sec. I above.)
Hemingway, S. B. English Nativity Plays, ed. with Introduction, Notes and Glossary. New York, 1909. [This contains a list of the editions of the Collective Mysteries.]
Hohlfeld, B. Altenglische Kollektivmysterien, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der York- und Towneley-Spiele. Anglia, vol. XI, 1889. [Extremely acute.]
Marriott, W. A Collection of English Miracle-plays or Mysteries, containing the dramas from the Chester, Coventry and Towneley series, with Candlemas-Day and BalesGodsPromises. Basel, 1838.
Chester Plays. A Collection of Mysteries founded upon Scriptural Subjects and formerly represented by the Trades of Chester at Whitsuntide. Ed., with Introduction, by Wright, T. 2 vols. Shakesp. Soc. Publ. 18437.
Printed in vol. I of Amyots Suppl. to Dodsley.
(the first thirteen). Ed. Deimling, H., for E.E.T.S. Extra Ser. LXXII. 1893.
Plays: Noahs Flood and Histories of Lot and Abraham. Ptd., abridged, in Manlys Specimens and in Pollards English Miracle Plays.
Ungemach, H. Die Quellen der fünf ersten Chester Plays. (Münchener Beiträge.) Erlangen and Leipzig. 1890.
Ludus Coventriae. A Collection of Mysteries formerly represented at Coventry on the Feast of Corpus Christi. Ed. Halliwell[-Phillipps], J. O. Shakesp. Soc. Publ. 1841.
Sharp, T. A Dissertation on the Pageants or Dramatic Mysteries, anciently performed at Coventry. Coventry, 1825. This contains The Shearmen and Taylors Pageant, performed at Coventry, which is also ptd. in Manlys Specimens and in Pollard, A. W., Fifteenth Century Prose and Verse, 1903.
Two Coventry Corpus Christi Plays. (The Shearmen and Taylors Pageant and the Weavers Pageant.) Ed. Craig, H. E.E.T.S. Extra Ser. LXXXVII. 1902.
Plays IX (Salutatio et Conceptio). Ptd., abridged, in Pollards English Miracle Plays.
The Presentation in the Temple. (The Weavers Pageant.) Ed. Sharp, T. Abbotsford Club Publ. 1836. Ed. Holthausen, F. In Anglia, vol. XXV, pp. 209250, 1902.
Towneley (Wakefield) Plays.
Towneley Mysteries. Printed for the Surtees Society. 1836. (Raine, J., and Gordon, J., and Stevenson, J. S., have been successively stated to have edited this volume.)
Plays. Ed. England, G., with Introduction by Pollard, A. W. E.E.T.S. Extra Ser. LXXI. 1897.
Play XIII (Secunda Pastorum). Rptd. in Manlys Specimens and Marriott, and, abridged, in Pollard, A. W., English Miracle Plays, etc.
Bunzen, A. Zur Kritik der Wakefield Mysterien. (Diss.) Kiel, 1903.
Peacock, M. H. The Wakefield Mysteries. In Anglia, vol. XXIV, 1901.
Skeat, W. W. The Locality of the Towneley Plays. In Athenaeum, 2 December, 1893.
York Plays. Ed., with Introduction and Glossary, by Smith, Lucy Toulmin. 1885. [A work of exceptional value.]
Craigie, W. A. The Gospel of Nicodemus and the York Mystery Plays. In Furnivall Miscellany, 1901.
Hertrich, O. Studien zu den York Plays. (Diss.) Breslau, 1886.
Holthausen, F. The York Plays. Herrigs Archiv, vols. LXXXV-LXXXVI, 18901.
Zur Textkritik der York Plays. In Philolog. Studien, Festgabe für E. Sievers. Halle, 1896.
Kamann, P. Die Quellen der York Plays. Publ. in Anlia, vol. X, 1888. (Diss.) Leipzig, 1887.
C. Other Mysteries and Miracle-p´lays
Abraham and Isaac. (The ``Brome'' Play.) Ed. Smith, L. Toulmin, in Anglia, vol. VII, 1884. See also Non-Cycle Mystery Plays below. [Apparently not part of a cycle.]
(The Sacrifice of Abraham.) Privately ptd. by Collier, J. P., from a MS. discovered at Dublin. 1836. Ed. Brotanek, R. In Anglia, vol. XXI, 1899.
Adam and Eve. The Story of the Creation of Eve, with the expelling of Adam and Eve out of Paradyse. (The Grocers Play at Norwich.) Ed. Fitch, R. Privately printed. Norwich, 1856. See also Non-Cycle Mystery Plays below.
Digby Mysteries. (St. Mary Magdalen, Massacre of the Innocents, Conversion of St. Paul.) Ed. Sharp, T. Abbotsford Club Publ. 1835. The first of these is ptd. in Origin of E. D., vol. I.
Ed. Furnivall, F. J. Shaksp. Soc. Publ. 1882. Re-issued for E.E.T.S. Extra Ser. LXX, 1896. This also contains the Play of Christs Burial and Resurrection from another Bodleian MS.
``Parfres Candlemas Day,'' or the Kyllynge of the children of Israel. Also ptd. in Origin of E. D., vol. I, and in Marriott, W. (Sec. II B above).
The Conversion of St. Paul. Manlys Specimens, vol. I. Schmidt, K. Die Digby-Spiele. 1884.
Dux Morand. Einzelrolle aus einem verlorenen Drama d. 14, Jahrh. Discovered and published by Henser, W. Anglia, vol. XXX, p. 180.
Harrowing of Hell, The. Das altenglische Spiel von Christs Höllenfahrt neu hrsgb. von Mall. Breslau, 1871.
Ed. with the Gospel of Nicodemus, by Hulme, W. H. E.E.T.S. Extra Ser c. 1907. See also Pollard, A. W., English Miracle Plays.
Young K. The Harrowing of Hell in Liturgical Drama. Rptd. from Transactions of Wisconsin Academy, vol. XVI, Part 2. 1909.
John Baptistes, Enterlude of. Ed. Greg, W. W., for Malone Society. 1906.
Johan the Evangelist. Ptd. by Waley, J. s.a. Ed. Greg, W. W., for Malone Soc. 1907.
Leicester Play. Liebermann, F. Das Osterspiel zu Leicester. Herrigs Archiv, vol. CXII, 1900.
Noahs Ark. (The Shipwrights Play at Newcastle-on-Tyne.) Rptd. from Brands History of Newcastle-on-Tyne in Sharps Dissertation on Coventry Mysteries. Ed. Holthausen, F. In Göteborgs Högsbolas Areskrift, 1897. Ed. Brotanek, R. In Anglia, vol. XXI, 1899.
Non-Cycle Mystery Plays, The, together with The Croxton Play of the Sacrament, and The pride of Life. Ed. from the manuscripts by Waterhouse, O., with introduction and glossary. E.E.T.S. Extra Ser. CIV. 1909. [In this volume are included the following mystery plays, none of which forms part of any of the four great cycles, but some of which are held to have belonged to cycles of their own: the Officia Pastorum, Resurrectionis and Peregrinorum (Shrewsbury Fragments); the Creation of Eve and The Fall (Newcastle); Abrahams Sacrifice (Dublin and Brome).]
Sacrament, the Play of the. A Middle-English Drama, ed. from a MS. in the Library of Trin. Coll., Dublin, with Preface and Glossary, by Stokes, Whitley. Philol. Soc. Trans., 18601 (Appendix).
Yorkshire, South East, Plays. Van der Gaaf, W. Miracles and Mysteries of South East Yorkshire. Engl. Stud, vol. XXVI, 1906.
Bale, Bishop. Gods Promises. Written in 1538. Ptd. in Reeds Dodsley, vol. I; in Colliers Dodsley, vol. I; in Hazlitts Dodsley, vol. I, and in Marriott, W. (Sec. II B above).
John Baptyste. Written in 1538. Ptd. in Harleian Miscellany, vol. I, 1808.
The Temptacyon of our Lorde. Written in 1538. Ed. Grosart, A. B. Miscellanies of the Fuller Worthies Library, vol. I. 1870.
Three Laws of Nature. Ptd. in 1538 and 1572. Ed. Schröer, M. Anglia, vol. V, 137225, 1882.
[Kynge Johan is entered among the moralities in Sec. III C, though the moral element in it is already secondary to the historical.]
Meriasek, St., Bishop and Confessor, the Life of. Ed., with a Translation and Notes, by Stokes, Whitley. 1872.
Norris, E. The Ancient Cornish Drama. 2 vols. Oxford, 1859.
Peter, T. C. The Old Cornish Drama. A Lecture. 1906. Cf. Gayley, Sources of the Cycles, in Plays of our Forefathers, pp. 333 f.
A. General History and Criticism
Cushman, L. D. The Devil and Vice in English Dramatic Literature before Shakespeare. 1900.
Eckhardt, E. Die lustige Person im älteren englischen Drama. In Palaestra, vol. XVII. Berlin, 1902.
Seifert, J. Die Wit-und-Science Moralitäten d. 16. Jahrhunderts. Karolinenthal, 1892.
B. Pre-Tudor Moralities
Castell of Perseverance, The. (``Macro'' morality.) Part ptd. by POllard, A. W. English Miracle Plays. (See Sec. I.)
Macro Plays, the. (Mankind, Wisdom, who is Christ, The Castell of Perseverance.) Edd. Furnivall, F. J. and Pollard, A. W. E.E.T.S. Extra Ser. XCI. 1904.
Mankind. (``Macro'' morality.) Ptd. in Brandls Quellen; and part ptd. in Polland, A. W.
Pride of Life, the. (Fragment.) Ed. Mills, T., in Proceedings of R. Soc. of Antiquaries of Ireland. Dublin, 1891. Ptd. in Brandls Quellen.
Wisdom, who is Christ. Ed. from the Digby MS. for the New Shaksp. Soc. by Furnivall, F. J. 1882. [Ptd. under the title Mind, Will and Understanding, for the Abbotsford Club, 1837.]
C. Earlier Tudor Moralities
[In chronological order.]
The Nature of the Four Elements. Ptd. in 1519 by John Rastell. Rptd. in vol. I of Hazlitts Dodsley. As to Rastells authorship of this morality see Manly, T., in Journal of Germanic Philology, vol. II, p. 425, 1898.
The World and the Child. Ptd. 1522. Rptd. for Roxburghe Club, 1817; in vol. XII of Colliers Dodsley; in vol. I of Hazlitts Dodsley; and in Manlys Specimens, vol. I.
Hycke-Scorner. Ptd. probably c. 1525. Rptd. in vol. I of Origin of E.D.; in vol. I of Hazlitts Dodsley; and in Manlys Specimens, vol. I.
Every-man. Ptd. c. 1529. Four old edd., two by Richard Pynson (150930); one by John Skot (152137). Rptd. by Greg, W. W., from Skots ed. in Bangs Materialien, vol. IV, 1904; by Goedeke, K., in Everyman, Homulus und Hekastus, Hanover, 1865 [with a masterly introduction on the comparative history of the theme]; by Logeman, H., under the title Everyman-Elkerlijk, with the parallel Dutch text, Ghent, 1892; by de Raaf, K. H., Groningen, 1897 (see Logemans reply to de Raaf, Ghent, 1902); in vol. I of Origin of E. D. and in vol. I of Hazlitts Dodsley; by Sidgwick, F., 1902; by Pollard, A. W., in Fifteenth Century Prose and Verse, 1903; and by Farmer, J. S., in E.E.D. Publ., 1906.
Skelton, John. Magnyfycence. Ptd. by John Rastell (152933.) Rptd. in vol. I of A. Dyces ed. of Skeltons Works. 1843. Ed. Ramsay, R. L., E.E.T.S. Extra Ser. CXVIII. 1906 (issued 1908). [For bibliography see Vol. III of the present work, pp. 5467.]
Nature. Ptd. probably in 1538 in London. Bound copy in British Museum lettered Medwell Nature. Assigned by Collier to Henry Medwell, chaplain, to cardinal Morton. Rptd. by Fischer, T., with Introduction, in Marburger Studien, vol. V, 1903, and in Brandls Quellen.
Redford, John. Wyt and Science. [Written in reign of Henry VIII, probably the later part of it.] Old impression s.a. or title-page. Ed. Halliwell [-Phillipps], J. O., for Shakesp. Soc. 1848.
Bale, Bishop. Kynge Johan. c. 1548. Ed. Collier, J. P., for Camden Soc. 1838.
[This work, though suggested, perhaps, by Lyndsays Ane Satyre of the thrie Estaitis, owes still more to T. Kirchmayers Pammachius, translated in 1538 by Bale. The influence of Pammachius shews itself already in Bales Three Lawes of Nature.]
Wever, R. Lusty Juventus. Written under Edward VI; ptd. c. 1550. Rptd. in vol. I of Origin of E. D. and in vol. I of Hazlitts Dodsley.
Respublica. A merye enterlude entitled Respublica, made in the yeare of our Lorde, 1553, and the first yeare of the moost prosperous Reigne of our moste gracious soveraigne Quene Marye the first. Ptd. in Brandls Quellen; also by Magnus, L. A., in E.E.T.S. Extra Ser. XCIV, 1905.
Interlude of Youth. Written in Queen Marys reign. Ptd. by Waley, T. (157686); by Copland, W. (154969); and in a fragment. Rptd. in vol. II of Hazlitts Dodsley; and, with Fragments of the Play of Lucre and of Nature by Bang, W. and McKerrow, R. B., in Bangs Materialien, vol. XII, 1905.
D. Elizabethan Moralities
[In chronological order.]
Wealth and Health. Entered in Stationers register, 1557. Edd. Greg, W. W., and Simpson, P. Malone Soc. Reprints. 1907. Ed. Holthausen, F. Kiel, 1908.
The Nice Wanton. Entered in Stationers register, 1560. Ptd. in Hazlitts Dodsley, vol. II.
Impatient Poverty. ``Newlye imprinted,'' 1560. (To be rptd. in Bangs Materialien.)
A new Enterlude of Godly Queene Hester. Ed. from the quarto of 1562 by Greg, W. W., in Bangs Materialien, vol. V. (1904).
King Darius. Ptd. 1565. Rptd. privately by Halliwell-Phillipps, J. O., in 1860; and in Brandls Quellen.
Albyon Knight. Entered in Stationers register, 15656. Ptd. by Collier in vol. I of Shakespeare Societys Papers in Shakesp. Soc. Publ., 1844.
Wager, L. The Life and Repentaunce of Marie Magdalene. A morality play rptd. from the original ed. of 1566, ed. by Carpenter, F. J. New ed. Chicago, 1904.
The Triall of Treasure. Ptd. by Thomas Purfoote, 1567. Ed. for Percy Soc. Publ., vol. XXVIII, by Halliwell[-Phillipps], J. O., 1850, and rptd. in Hazlitts Dodsley, vol. III.
Fulwel, U. Like wil to Like quod the Devel to the Colier. Ptd. by John Allde in 1568 and by Edward Allde in 1587. Rptd. in Hazlitts Dodsley, vol. III.
The Marriage of Witte and Science. Licensed 156970. Ptd. by Thomas Marshe. s.a. Rptd. in Hazlitts Dodsley, vol. II.
The Marriage of Wit and Wisdom. Ed. Halliwell[-Phillipps], J. O., Shakesp. Soc. Publ. 1846.
Wager, William. The longer thou livest, the more Fool thou art. Ptd. by William How. s.a. Rptd. by Brandl, A., in Shakesp. Jahrbuch, vol. XXXVI, 1900.
New Custome. Ptd. 1573. Rptd. in Reeds Dodsley, vol. I; in Colliers Dodsley, vol. I, and in Hazlitts Dodsley, vol. III.
Wapul, George. The Tide tarrieth no man. Ptd. by Hugh Jackson in 1576. Rptd. by Rühl, E., in Shakesp. Jahrbuch, vol. XLIII, 1907.
Lupton, Thomas. All for Money. Ptd. 1578. Rptd. in Halliwell-Phillipps, J. O., Literature of the 16th and 17th Centuries illustrated, 1851; and, with an Introduction by Vogel, E., in Shakesp. Jahrbuch, vol. XL, 1904.
Woodes, Nathaniel. The Conflict of Conscience. Ptd. in 1581. Rptd. from the ed. published for the Roxburghe Club by Collier, J. P., in 1851, in Hazlitts Dodsley, vol. II, with Colliers Introduction.
(Wilson, Robert, the actor?) The Three Ladies of London. Ptd. 1584, as acted. Rptd. in Five Old Plays, and in Hazlitts Dodsley, vol. VI.
The Three Lords and the Three Ladies of London. Ptd. 1590. Rptd. in Five Old Plays, and in Hazlitts Dodsley, vol. VI.
Fernow, H. The Three Lords and Three Ladies of London. By R(obert) W(ilson). London, 1590. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Englischen Dramas. Hamburg, 1885.
The Contention between Liberalitie and Prodigalitie. Acted before Queen Elizabeth in 1600; probably the revision of an earlier work. Ptd. in Hazlitts Dodsley, vol. VIII.
Lyndsay, Sir David. Ane Satyre of the Thrie Estaitis in commendation of Vertew and Vituperation of Vyce. Ptd. at Edinburgh in 1602. Rptd. in Chalmerss ed. of Lyndsays Poetical Works. 3 vols., 1866, and in D. Laings 3 vols., 1879; and ed. for the E.E.T.S. by Hall, Fitzedward, 1869.
Philotus. Ptd. at Edinburgh in 1603. Rptd. for Bannatyne Club. Edinburgh, 1835.
The Cradle of Security. An account of a performance of this play in Willis, R., Mount Tabor (1639) is rptd. in Halliwell-Phillipps, J. O., Outlines of the Life of Shakespeare, 1887 (vol. I., p. 48).
[A moral play, of which some pages are rptd. in Maitland, S. R., A List of some of the Early Printed Books in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, 1843, p. 280, is nothing more than a translation of a French protestant moralité, La Vérité Cachée.]